The Restless Earth – What you need to know

The key ideas for the topic are in bold and the main information you need to know is shown in italics.

The Earth’s crust is unstable, especially at plate margins.

Distribution of plates; contrasts between continental and oceanic plates.

Destructive, constructive and conservative plate margins.

Unique landforms occur at plate margins.

Location and formation of fold mountains, ocean trenches, composite volcanoes and shield volcanoes.

People use these landforms as a resource and adapt to the conditions within them.

A case study of one range of fold mountains. The ways in which they are used – farming, Hydro Electric Power, mining, tourism and how people adapt to limited communications, steep relief, poor soils.

Volcanoes are hazards resulting from tectonic activity. Their primary and secondary effects are positive as well as negative. responses change in the aftermath of an eruption.

Characteristics of different types of volcanoes. A case study of a volcanic eruption – its cause; primary and secondary effects; positive and negative impacts; immediate and long term responses. Monitoring and predicting volcanic eruptions.

Supervolcanoes are on a much bigger scale than other volcanoes and an eruption would have global consequences.

The characteristics of a supervolcano and the likely effects of an eruption.

Earthquakes occur at constructive, destructive and conservative plate margins.

Location and cause of earthquakes. Features of earthquakes – epicentre, focus, shock waves and the measurement of earthquakes using the richter and Mercalli Scales.

The effects of earthquakes and responses to them differ due to contrasts in levels of wealth.

A case study of an earthquake in a rich part of the world and one from a poorer area – their specific causes; primary and secondary effects; immediate and long term responses – the need to predict, protect and prepare. Contrasts in effects and responses will be clear.

Tsunamis are a specific secondary effect and can have devastating effects in coastal areas.

A case study of a tsunami – its cause, effects and responses.